Protector of wells, Mizuha-nome-no-mikoto, the well goddess vs. Suijin-Sama, the water-god


The tutelar deity of well-cleaners is known by two names, Mizuha-nome-no-mikoto, the Goddess of Wells, and by the more generic Water-god, and usually male counterpart, Suijin-Sama whose role is to protect all wells and keep the water sweet and cool. The wells must be cleaned once a year, or the breaking of cleanliness law by the house-owners will incur the wrath of the deity, bringing sickness and death.

The goddess(god) rarely manifests her/himself, but when s/he does, s/he takes the form of a serpent. Her/His familiars or messengers, are usually a pair of fish called funa (crucian carp), a live pair are released into wells to eat the larvae inhabiting the well water.

According to Lafcadio Hearn’s writings, once a month, the deity is visited by a Shinto priest who repeats ancient prayers to the Well-God(dess) and plants nobori, paper flags at the edge of the well. The same ritual is also performed after the well has been cleaned.

The first water of the well must be drawn by a man, for the presumably jealous well goddess would be angered by a woman doing so.

See: “Out of the East: Reveries and Studies in Japan” by Lafcadio Hearn


According to Lafcadio Hearn, Mizuhanome/Suijin have no shrines, but interestingly, R.A.B. Ponsonby-Fane in his “Studies of Shinto and Shrines”, traces the Mizuhanome deity to one of the three Amashi-no-kami rain deities enshrined in the Nibu-kawakami jinja, located on Upper River Nibu in Yoshino-gun.

And in “Nibukawakami Jinja”, Ponsonby-Fane  writes that all the authorities or sources(as well as in Studies in Shinto & Shrines, at p. 264), including the Engishiki Jimmyocho, are unanimous in identifying the deity worshipped there as Mizuhanome-no-kami deity as a rain goddess and as one who received “hei” from the court during the Tsukinami and Niiname festivals.

Ponsonby-Fane also hypothesizes that Mizuha-nome-no-mikoto (or Mizuhanome-no-kami) was one of the water deities venerated by local indigenous aboriginals when Emperor Jimmu arrived and which is why it was decided to build the Nibukawakami shrine at that very location, and thereby including the female Mizuha-nome-no-mikoto, along with the other Amashi rain deities, Takaokami and Kuraokami, the latter two being male raingods.

Emperor Jimmu is said to have sacrificed 80 dishes and jars to the Deity of Heaven and Earth

Emperor Jimmu is said to have sacrificed 80 dishes and jars at upper Nibu River to the Deity of Heaven and Earth

The earliest date recorded in the Engishiki for the receipt of “hei” (offerings given by the Imperial Court) by the goddess from the Imperial Court is 763 A.D. though the founding of the shrine is given as a hundred years earlier.

Kojiki and Nihonshoki record Mizuha-nome-no-mikoto as the water goddess born to Izanami-no-mikoto, from her urine. (According to Kojiki, Kuraokami and Kuramitsuha were produced from the blood as it collected on the hilt of Izanagi’s sword and dripped through his fingers.)

The fact of the worship of a water goddess called Mizuha-nome-no-mikoto is thus corroborated by the Engishiki records, as well as both the Kojiki and Nihonshoki accounts.

According to Daniel Holtom’s “National Faith of Japan“(at p. 96), earlier sources called the shrine Nibu Kawakami which means Nibu river rain-chief shrines, or simply Rain Chief shrines.

“The title translated Rain-Chief is read Okami in the original and is written with two ideograms, one meaning rain and the other chief or head. We are thus in possession of an easy key to understanding the meaning of the names of the two deities, just introduced. The gods of the Nibu shrines are Dark Rain-Chief Deity (Kura-Okami-no-Kami) and “Fierce Rain-Chief Deity” (Taka Okami-no-Kami), kura(kurai) being taken in the ordinary sense of dark and taka being taken in the sense of takeki “fierce” or “brave”. [note: kura also means “narrow gorge beneath a cliff“]

The Upper River Nibu Kawakami shrine and the Lower River Nibu Kawakami shrine’s identical documents thus reveal the true function of the two male water-gods Taka and Kura Okami.  The note in the shrine text document explained that the two deities are rain dragons, the lower shrine deity being a guardian of the valley, and the upper one, a guardian dragon god of mountain tops. Both deities are considered to be one, and to be Amashi-no-kami, rain gods. A black horse was offered to the Kura Okami deity to induce the deity to produce rain during droughts, while a white horse was meant to halt the rain. See A study of rain deities and rain wizards of Japan.

On the more generic water god, the Encyclopedia of Shinto has more on Suijin-no-kami or Water god.

“Water-kami,” a general term for tutelaries of water, found in a variety of forms. Water is of crucial importance in agriculture, and the availability and quality of water can spell life or death to farmers; as a result, tutelaries of water naturally came to be associated with rice-field tutelaries (ta no kami). Most suijin are found enshrined on the dikes of irrigation canals, or alongside paddy fields. In some cases, water kami may be found enshrined as “water distributing kami” (mikumari no kami) at the mountain springs forming the sources of agricultural waterways, in which cases they may also be associated with the kami of the mountain (yama no kami). In addition to their connection with the water used in agriculture, water kami are also found enshrined at sources of water used in everyday life, such as household wells, springs, and streams…”



Further reading:

Suijin (Encyclopedia of Shinto)

Suijin (Wikipedia)

Shumacher, Mark, Suijin (A-Z Photo Dictionary)


Noro, the virgin fire-custodian and the legend of ancestral fire from the Dragon’s Palace

Noro maidens of Okinawa

Noro maidens of Okinawa (Source: Wikimedia Commons)

Noro of Okinawa (source: Wikimedia Commons)

Noro of Okinawa, painting at the Tokyo Ueno National Museum (source: Wikimedia Commons)

George H. Kerr in “Okinawa, the history of an island people” writes of an ancient cult that he calls a “living fossil” of a prehistoric age. Below is an extract from Kerr’s book offering important insights on the role of the noro, the female fire custodians of the Okinawan islands, the Tametomo legend and the Fire-bringing visitors.

From legendary times until the present day the noro priestess has exercised a powerful influence in the Ryukyuan community. until 1879 a daughter or sister of the king at Shuri usually assumed the role of the chief high priestess as intercessor between the spirit world and the king’s household, and was often an important counselor in royal affairs.
It was the noro’s duty to preserve the fire on the hearth. It can be imagined with what difficulty fire was transported from island to island in primitive days, and what hardships a community suffered if the precious flames were extinguished by accident. A daughter in each household was assigned the task of conserving and feeding the hearth” fire. Fire was a communal treasure, in itself a living thing, handed on from generation, to generation. A taboo system grew up around the office of the fire-custodian. She was expected to remain a virgin and was thought to be in close communication with the ancestors from whom fire descended. When new households were establishes, fire was transferred from the family home to the new dwelling or kindled anew with ceremony. In this way the continuity of the fire came to represent blood relationships and family continuity as well. The custodian of the fire upon the oldest hearth in the community assumed an official distinction; her office was hereditary, passing usually to a female child of the noro’s brother. A plot of land was set aside for he support. Thank offerings from the community enlarged her income. Within her house, three hearthstones served as a center of worship, for these formed the locus of the root deity (ne-gami) of the village.
It has been suggested that in ancient days fire was always made by striking stones together and that, through association the stones themselves became sacred. Another theory suggests that the three stones originally were used to support the earthenware pots over the fire and so became associated with it. It is noteworthy that the stones are brought from the seashore, no matter how far inland the house or village altar may be, and that among the pantomimic seasonal dances performed by Okinawan villagers, there usually is one which tells a legend of the “fire-bringing visitors.”
Vestments of white cloth (symbolizing ritual cleanliness) and a string of beads (including the magatama or curved jewels) have been symbols of the noro’s office since prehistoric times. Her duties require care of the hearth fire, worship of the ancestors through ritual devotion, and divination to settle upon auspicious days for marriage, burial, travel, or the simple tasks of the agricultural community.

While the noro has all but disappeared at Naha and Shuri, the institution still commands respect as diviner and intercessor for the common man in the country villages and in the outlying islands, where she guards the ritual objects on the sacred heath and attends springs and sacred groves associated with the welfare and protection of the village life.

Kerr is of the view that this noro institution is a relic matriarchal cult similar to those neolithic cults “once found in many regions of the Eurasian land-mass long before the literate and historic cultures of China, the Middle East, and the Mediterranean areas were evolved. The sacred groves, the springs and wells, the oracular shrines, and the guardian priestesses of British Isles find close counterpart in the 20th-century mysteries of the noro cult.”

Origin of the ancestral fire and ancestors

According to the Ryukyu Shinto-ki, (about 1603) at the beginning of time two deities named Shineri-kyu and a female named Amai-kyu. in due time, they built huts side by side. Although they indulged in no sexual intercourse, the female deity Amami-kyu became pregnant, thanks to the influence of a passing wind. Three children were born to her. The eldest, a son became the first ruler of the islands; the second, a girl became the first noro or priestess; and a third, a son, became the first of the common people. Fire, which was essential for their well-being, was obtained “from the Dragon Palace,” traditionally believed to rest on the bottom of the sea.
With this simple tale the Okinawans provide for the virgin birth of demigods who personify the essential social functions of administration, religious practice, and economic production. The Dragon Palace episode hints at a folk-memory that that at sometime in the dim past the fire treasured on every hearth was brought with religious care from somewhere over the open seas.
[the Okinawan scholar iha Fuyu, he devoted much time to an analysis of the early records, language and legend to discover the origins of Okinawan people and their prehistory. In the story of the two progenitores of the Okinawan people, he detected a fable embodying the meeting and blending of two peoples, possibly in the island of Amami Oshima. The name of the female deity was Amami-kyu, which by a process of linguistic analysis, he identifies with a fishing people from Kyushu who moved into Oshima and thence pushed on southward unto okinawa. The people of Oshima say they are descended from Amami-dake, who created Amami-Oshima. Some of the Omoro songs refer to the Amami-ya (“Dwelling of the Ama-bo” or fishers’ community)

According to the legendary history of one line of paramount local chieftains – singled out and styled a “royal house” called the Tenson dynasty, their first king called Shunten was descended from the gods who ruled for “seventeen thousand years.”

One version of the Tametomo legend says that Tametomo was sailing one day between  two Izu islands when he was blown far out to sea, drifting at last in the storm’s wake to Okinawa.

There he and his men were welcomed by a local chieftain, the Lord of Osato, with whose daughter he contracted a marriage. Shunten was born of that union. This was a temporary arrangement; he was to get back to the wars in Japan, and after a vain attempt to take his Okinawan wife and child with him, he and his men left Okinawa.

…we must note the existence in the Ryukyus of many stories of the sun goddess Amaterasu. One of these repeats the tradition into a great cave and of her return to bring light to the world after fearful darkness. In Japan this legend is associated with a cave near the Ise Grand shrines in the Shima Peninsula; in Ryukyu it is associated with a deep hillside cavern overlooking the sea on the eastern shores of Iheya island. This legend of Ama no Iwa To may have been introduced from Japan in later years. The cave is still held sacred by the local priestesses, and the Okinawans have not lost pride in repeating local beliefs that the first Japanese emperor, Jimmu began his great north-eastward conquest of Japan from this minor island in the Ryukyus.

As for origins (which can be supported by evidence of genetic affinity as well), we might look to the communities of the Tungus, Mongol and Turkic peoples of Siberia where there was a special professional group of female shamans, the udagan, whose rituals similarly focused on fire-worship. Pregnancy and healthy delivery are the major roles of this deity, expressed in pictorial associations of the cultural sphere’s the primordial goddess with the tree of life. See Haarmann, Harald and Marler, Joan, 2008, “Introducing the Mythological Crescent: Ancient Beliefs and Imagery connectng Eurasia with Anatolia


I have written about yamababa and demon hags before, but this post by Wild in Japan provides a terrific backstory to the pregnant potbellied demon hag.

Wild in Japan

Hi blog.

The weather continues to be erratic, with the minimum temperature one day being higher than the maximum temperature the next, alternating rain and clear skies, but the claws of winter are here.

Taking another break from wildlife, I’ve decided to do a brief write-up on something I’ve had sitting on the backburner for a couple of years.  The roots of this post, however, go back a couple of decades.

My host family in Obihiro had a large collection of ukiyoe books, and one image that struck me was one depicting a young, pregnant-bellied woman hung by her ankles from the rafters and an old hag sharpening a knife, wooden basin at the ready.  I didn’t know the story behind the art – a lot of ukiyoe art presents old stories as its subject – and so I was kept guessing for over two decades.

All that changed when…

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Wolf at the door

A marvelously informative and visual on wolves and related myths and legends from Wild in Japan…

Wild in Japan

Hi blog.

This post has been a long time coming.  The idea goes back several years, but it took a bit of luck and planning to bring it together.

There is a lot of disagreement and confusion when it comes to the Honshu wolf, one of two (or possibly more) wolves endemic to – and now extinct in – Japan.  Scientists can’t agree whether it was a subspecies of the gray wolf (Canis lupus hodophilax) or a separate species (Canis hodophilax).  No-one seems able to point to a single cause for their extinction (I can – I call it “the usual reasons”*).  The locals couldn’t even agree on a single name.

What we do know is that the last confirmed wolf was killed in Nara in 1905.  Apparently, there had been one kept in Ueno Zoo just over a decade before, but no photographs survive.  (And, alas, neither…

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Autumn demons, dragons and the Togakushi mountains

This post is informative, and adds to our knowledge and understanding of the connection between dragons, rain/water sources and ritual, and demon folklore and the cultural demon expulsion practices seen in many local festivals and folk legends


With autumn in full swing in the Togakushi mountains these days, here’s a few words on the connection between autumn, demons (oni 鬼) and dragons (ryuu 龍) at Togakushi.

As I described in a previous post,  the first deity encountered at Togakushi (recounted in a thirteenth century account) was the dragon, Kuzuryu 九頭龍 (literally, “nine-headed-dragon”).  Kuzuryu appeared at the mountain when the first ascetic to arrive in the region, Gakumon (9th c.), threw a ritual scepter in its direction.

Taira Koremochi unmoved by the demon-turned-beauty (or dare I say, “femme-fatale”?), Momiji.  1890.

From ancient times, Kuzuryu was believed to provide water/rain (a common belief at mountains across the Japanese archipelago and sites across Asia) but also feared in the common imagination as a mountain demon.  In one ritual for Kuzuryu dating back to the fifteenth century, participants offered up autumn Japanese maple leaves (momiji 紅葉) to…

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Tengu on a white fox

Seen on Mt Takao

Seen on Mt Takao

There is more than one version of the story behind the TENGU depicted riding a white fox (probably linked to Dakiniten-Benzaiten) One version is that the tengu is Dōryō Daigongen 道了大権現. Dōryō was a mountain ascetic before becoming a Soto Zen monk. He was eventually appointed as head cook and administrator at Daiyūzan Temple 大雄山 (Kanagawa Prefecture). After his death in 1411 AD, legend says he metamorphosed into a TENGU goblin and became the monastery guardian. According to scholar Duncan Williams in The Other Side of Zen: A Social History of Soto Zen Buddhism in Tokugawa Japan (published 2005, ISBN 0-691-11928-7): “[Upon his death] his body was engulfed in flames as he appeared transformed and stood on a white fox to promise a life free from illness and full of riches for those who sincerely worshipped him.”

The other version is that the tengu is Akiba Daigongon Tengu Akihabara, Akibasan Sanshakubō 秋葉山三尺坊, Akiba Gongen, Sanshaku Gongen, Sanjakubō

In the 17th century, Tokugawa Ieyasu was appointed to SHOGUN. He brought Akiba Daigongen shrine from his hometown over here. People called this place Akihabara since this event. Akiba Daigongen is a deity who resembles a raven-like Tengu and who rides on fox. He is in charge of fire prevention. During the Edo period in Japan, fire often brought tragedy, because traditionally wooden buildings are many. So, after the Shogun brought Akiba Daigongen from his hometown Akiba Daigongen continued to be venerated by successive Shoguns.

Source: Onmark Productions’ Tengu pages