Bey (Ottoman Turkish: بك, Beg, Beğ) is a title for chieftain, traditionally applied to the leaders of small tribal groups. According to some sources, the word “Bey” is of Turkish language In historical accounts, many Turkish, other Turkic and Persian leaders are titledBey, Beg, Bek, Bai, Bay, Baj, Baig or Beigh. They are all the same word with the simple meaning of “lord”. The regions or provinces where beys ruled or which they administered were called beylik, roughly meaning “emirate” or “principality” in the first case, “province” or “governorate” in the second (the equivalent of duchy in Europe).
Many of the Buddhist texts which were taken to China along the Silk Road were written using a version of the Siddhaṃ script. This continued to evolve, and minor variations are seen across time, and in different regions. Importantly it was used for transmitting the Buddhisttantra texts. At the time it was considered important to preserve the pronunciation of mantras, and Chinese was not suitable for writing the sounds of Sanskrit. This led to the retention of the Siddhaṃ Script in East Asia. The practice of writing using Siddhaṃ survived in East Asia where Tantric Buddhism persisted.
Kūkai introduced the Siddhaṃ script to Japan when he returned from China in 806, where he studied Sanskrit with Nalanda-trained monks including one known as Prajñā. By the time Kūkai learned this script, the trading and pilgrimage routes over land to India, were closed by the expanding Islamic empire of the Abbasids.
In Japan the writing of mantras and copying of Sutras using the Siddhaṃ script is still practiced in the esoteric Buddhist schools of Shingon and Tendai as well as in the syncretic sect of Shugendō. The characters are known as shittan (悉曇?) or bonji (梵字?, Chinese:Fánzi). The Taisho edition of the Chinese Tripiṭaka preserves the Siddhaṃ characters for most mantras, and Korean Buddhists still write seed syllables in a modified form of Siddhaṃ. A recent innovation is the writing of Japanese language slogans on T-shirts using Bonji. Japanese Siddhaṃ has evolved from the original script used to write sūtras and is now somewhat different from the ancient script.
On Tuesday, August 6, 2013, Aileen Kawagoe wrote:
Nama name in Iranic languagesNamae name in JapaneseWr.umin.jp swimming saft
Bey (Ottoman Turkish: بك, Beg, Beğ) is a title for chieftain, traditionally applied to the leaders of small tribal groups. According to some sources, the word “Bey” is of Turkish language In historical accounts, many Turkish, other Turkic and Persian leaders are titledBey, Beg, Bek, Bai, Bay, Baj, Baig or Beigh. They are all the same word with the simple meaning of “lord”. The regions or provinces where beys ruled or which they administered were called beylik, roughly meaning “emirate” or “principality” in the first case, “province” or “governorate” in the second (the equivalent of duchy in Europe).YHavana Iona yona rajas
Ame-no~ Amir / Heavenly /Celestial
In certain decimally-organized Muslim armies, Amir was an officer rank. For example, in Mughal India Amirs commanded 1000 horsemen (divided into ten units, each under a Sipah salar), ten of them under one Malik. In the imperial army of Qajar Persia:
- Amir Panj, “Commander of 5,000”
- Amir-i-Tuman, “Commander of 10,000”
- Amir ul-Umara, “Amir of Amirs” (cfr. supra) or ‘Commander of Commanders’
In the former Kingdom of Afghanistan, Amir-i-Kabir was a title meaning “great prince” or “great commander.”
(n.) reality, truth
- sanity < M.Fr. sanité “health,” < L. sanitas “health, sanity,” < sanus “healthy, sane
- sense < O.Fr. sens < L. sensus “perception, feeling “
- Goth sunja “truth”
- O.E. soþ “true,” originally *sonþ– < P.Gmc. *santhaz
- O.H.G. sand “true”
- O.N sannr “true”
Entry added on 02 Jun 2012
Updated on 05 Jun 2012
- dais < Anglo-French deis < O. Fr. dais ”platform, table”
Entry added on 30 Jul 2013
_________________________________________________________________Obviously, the NW and the clearly non-IA tribes limited to the RV should be
regarded separately. Here we find Kamboja (AV,PS+), cf. OP. Kambujīya ‘Cambyses’ (as
satrap of Kamboja, like ‘Prince of Wales, Dauphin’: Dauphinée?); however, cf. Gr.
Ambautai, a tribe in the Hindukush area, with the typical Saka suffix -tai (Sauroma-tai,
DA-NWA ► (KN Gg 701) This is from Chinese kanji
(n.) conversation, discourse, talk
- Gr. δήνεα (denea) “counsels, plans”
Notes: The LinB shift to the Greek δήνεα suggests that the original word may have been DA-NA-WA, or perhaps DA-NE-WA, before its weakening to DA-NWA.
Entry added on 09 Nov 2012
- cumulus “a heap” < L. cumulus “a heap, a mass, a pile; surplus”
Notes: Cumulus as “a rounded mass of clouds” is attested in 1803. Note that Japanese kumo also means “spider”, which may take its meaning from “rounded mass”.
Entry added on 06.06.13
(n.) country, earth, home, home country, land, region
- kin “family, kind, race; kind, sort” < O.E. cynn < P. Gmc. kunjam “family”
- kind “class, sort, variety” < O.E. gecynd “kind, nature, race”
- Dan., Swed. kön
- Goth. kuni “family, race”
- O.E. cennan “beget, create”
- O.Fris. kenn
- O.H.G. chunni “kin, race”
- O.N. kyn
- O.S. kunni
- king “ruler” < possibly O.E. cynn “family, race”
MA.DI (HT 3, 69, 85, 97, 118)
MA-DI ► (KN As 603+, Db 1168+)
(adj.) charmed and cursed
(n.) something that bewilders, leads one astray; the work of demons
- PIE *magh “to have power”
- magic “the art of using hidden natural forces” < O.F. magique < Late L. magice “magic, sorcery”
- mage “magician” < L. magus “magician”
- MA.DI > MA-DI (KN As 603+, Db1168+) ► Μηδίς (Medis) “a Median woman” > MA-DI-QO (KN B 806, Dl 930, Dv 1460) ► Μηδικός (Medikos) “the Median affairs” or μαγικός (magikos) “fit for the Magians; magical”
Notes: An ancient name for Iran is Media, and its people were called Medes or the Medians [“Medes”]. As the Magi, the Medes were followers of pre-Zoroastrian Mazdaism [Magi”] and practiced the medical arts, for which Iran became known [“Ancient”]. Consequently, medicine and magic are confounded in MA-DI-QO: Μηδικός and μαγικός. Medea, a devote of Hecate, was among the greatest sorceresses in Greek mythology. The myth explains how her son, Medus, became the king of the country that would eventually be called Media [“Medea”].
(n.) ancient burial mound, tomb
- It. cafano, Sp. cuebano “basket”
- coffer < O.Fr. cofre “chest” < L. cophinus “basket”
- coffin < O. Fr cofin
Archaec Gaelic word for sea is muir = cognate for umi sea in Japanese??
(v.) to look at, to see, to view
- miracle < L. miraculum “object of wonder” < mirari “to wonder at” < mirus “wonderful”
- mirage < Fr. se mirer “to be reflected” < V.L. mirare
- mirror < O.Fr. mireor < mirer “look at” < V.L. *mirare < L. mirari “to wonder at, admire” < L. admirari “to wonder at”
Notes: Compare, also, the homophonic words sea and see. The Japanese kanji for see (見) is also included in one spelling for the sea (綿津見). Compare IE words that are related to the sea, possibly for its reflective aspect: L. mare, mari; Est. meri; Fr. mer; Ger. meer.
(n.) charlatan, faker, quack
- Gr. ἴασις (iasis) “healing, healing mode, remedy”
- Gr. ἰατρός (iatros) “one who heals, physician”
Note: LinB pa-ki-ja-si (PY Un 2 et al.) does not appear to have a complete Greek translation. However, assuming a compound word, the second word appears to be the Greek ἴασις. Moreover, compare pa-ki-ja-si with the Japanese fukiyashi (see the phonetic key). Fuki is the Japanese name for the butterbur (Petasites hybridus), which the ancient Greeks used when treating multiple ailments that included gastrointestinal complaints, headaches, inflammation, and lung diseases [“Butterbur”]. Consequently, in LinB context, pa-ki-ja-si as fukiyashi, or, perhaps, fuki-iasis, may refer to a clan name that arose from its association with healing. At the moment, however, there appears to be no modern equivalent to this name.
- Butterbur (Petasites hybridus). Natural Standard. com. Ret. on 12.10.12.
Entry added on 10 Dec 2012
MIRU is a kun reading; see KEN for a related on reading.