Notes: Etymology of umi / ama – the etymology of the word form”sea” and awa / sawa meaning “water”, “foam” / marsh

From “Ama diving a precious cultural asset” The ama (海女, “female diver” or, more literally, “ocean woman”) pursue an old profession which has already been recorded in 7th-century literature. But nowadays it only survives in limited areas such as the Mie, Iwate and Ishikawa Prefectures. According to a survey made in 2007, there are approximately 1000 shell divers both men (also called ama, but written as 海士, “ocean master”) and women left in the cities of Toba and Shima in Mie Prefecture. One can say that it is a place of ama culture.

Almost every ama became deeply familiar with the sea by using it as a playground from childhood and thereby learning to swim and dive in a natural way. There are strict rules to follow in ama diving, such as limiting the diving season and the amount of catch (e.g. shellfish, pearls, lobster, seaweeds), and to not take out premature catch – 1000-year-old schemes to sustain the resources of the sea, making ama diving a precious cultural asset. Up to the present day, Toba City features places that produce dried abalone for use in important Shintô rituals at Ise Jingu.

In recent years, the amagoya (海女小屋) huts where the ama rest after diving have opened for the public and serve grilled seafood.

From Middle English mare, mere, from Old English mere, miere (“female horse, mare”), from Proto-Germanic *marhijō (“female horse”), from Proto-Indo-European *mark-, *marḱ- (“horse”). Cognate with Scots mere, meir, mear (“mare”), North Frisian mar (“mare, horse”), West Frisian merje (“mare”), Dutch merrie (“mare”), German Mähre (“mare”), Danish mær (“mare”), Swedish märr (“mare”), Icelandic meri (“mare”). Related also to Old English mearh (“male horse, steed”).

Alternative etymology cites derivation via Old English mere, miere, from Proto-Germanic *marhijō (cf. Dutch merrie, German Mähre), from *marhaz (“horse”) (compare Old English mearh), from Gaulish markos (compare Welsh march), from Iranian marikas (compare Old Persian marikas ‘male, manly’), from maryas (compare Avestan mairya ‘man; male animal’); akin to Sanskrit máryas ‘young man; stallion’. More at marry.

Pronunciation
(UK) IPA(key): /mɛə/
(US) IPA(key): /ˈmɛ(ə)ɹ/
Mere (lake)

The word mere is recorded in Old English as mere ″sea, lake″, corresponding to Old Saxon meri, Old Low Franconian *meri (Dutch meer ″lake, pool″, Picard mer ″pool, lake″, Northern French toponymic element -mer), Old High German mari / meri (German Meer ″sea″), Goth. mari-, marei, Old Norse marr ″sea″ (Norwegian mar ″sea″, Shetland norn mar ″mer, deep water fishing area″, Faroese marrur ″mud, sludge″, Swedish place name element mar-, French mare ″pool, pond″). They derive from reconstituted Proto-Germanic *mari, itself from Indo-European *mori, the same root as marsh and moor. The Indo-European root *mori gave also birth to similar words in the other European languages : Latin mare ″sea″ (Italian mare, Spanish mar, French mer), Old Celtic *mori ″sea″ (Gaulish mori-, more, Irish muir, Welsh môr, Breton mor), Old Slavic morje.The word has been also loaned to Finno-Ugric languages as Finnish and Estonian meri, meaning sea.
….

mare: meaning, definition, synonyms – WordSense.eu

WordSense.eu Dictionary: mare – meaning, definition, spelling, synonyms, … From Middle English mare, mere, from Old English mere, miere (“female horse, mare”), …. planetology – A dark, large circular plain; a “sea”. planetology – On Saturn’s moon … mare; Esperanto: maro; Extremaduran: mari; French: mer; Friulian: mâr …
mere – Online Etymology Dictionary

c.1400, “unmixed, pure,” from Old French mier “pure” (of gold), “entire, total, … ” true, real, genuine,” probably originally “clear, bright,” from PIE *mer- “to gleam, … marei “sea,” mari-saiws “lake”), from PIE *mori- “sea” (cognates: Latin mare, Old …
Mar, mari & mer are the root-words for many other words. Source: English for Students

These ROOT-WORDS are MAR, MARI, & MER meaning SEA & POOL. It comes … Mare Liberum, the open sea: Mare Clausum, the closed Sea: and Mare Nostrum, our sea which is now called the Mediterranean Sea. … Mere : MERE (meer) n.

Mère | Define Mère at Dictionary.com
dictionary.reference.com/browse/mère
[Old English mere sea, lake; related to Old Saxon meri sea, Old Norse marr, Old High German mari; compare Latin mare] … mere. c.1400, “unmixed,” from O.Fr. mier “pure, entire,” from L. merus “unmixed, pure, bare,” used of wine, probably originally “clear, bright,” from PIE *mer- “to gleam, glimmer, sparkle” (cf. O.E. american)

mare – Tolka.se

text/x-wikiwikitextMare|maré mare (English) Etymology 1 From – en … Alternative etymology cites derivation via – en mere, miere, from – en – *marhijō (cf. …. From – fr – lang=frm, from – fr – mare, from – fr – |lake, sea, pool|lang=non, from – fr … mare; Occitan – mar; Old French – mer; Old Portuguese – mar; Old Provençal – mar …
Etymons of English Words – Page 147

John Thomson (M. A. S.) – 1826 – ‎English language
MER parts of the body, a pliable texture of fibres ; L. membrana. … Mere, Meer, Mer, in the beginning, middle or ends of words, signifies 1. a lake or river, … Mermaid, s. a fabulous sea- woman ; from G. mar; L. mare, the sea, and maid. … The origin is obscure ; but S. mcere, great. celebrated, produced mersian, … See MiERE.
Etymons of English Words. – Edinburgh, Oliver & Boyd 1826

John Thomson – 1826
M E R parts of the body, a pliable texture of fibres; L. membraaa. … words, signifies l. alake or river, from G. mrzr, water; S. mere; T. mer ,- B. meer, a lake. … MEnmArn, s. a fabulous sea-woman ; from G. mar; L. mare, the sea, and maid. … The origin is obscure ; but S. were, great, celebrated, produced mersian, … See MIERE.
mere – definition of mere by the Free Online Dictionary, Thesaurus

[Middle English, absolute, pure, from Old French mier, pure, from Latin merus.] … [ Old English mere sea, lake; related to Old Saxon meri sea, Old Norse marr, Old High … Old High German meri, Old Norse marr, Gothic marei, Old Irish muir, Latin mare] … a combining form meaning “part,” “segment,” “unit,” used esp. in terms …
mare – The Free Online Dictionary and Encyclopedia (TFODE)

mare – : WordNet, Wiktionary, GCIDE, Moby  …. Alternative etymology cites derivation via Old English mere, miere, from Proto- Germanic *marhijō (cf. …. (planetology) A dark, large circular plain; a “sea”. ….. OHG. marah horse, meriha mare, Icel. marr horse, OCelt. marka (Pausan. 19, 19, 4) … OET: source, origin: chief, leader, CP, Chr: capital …… mare. III. = miere. mēre (VPs) = mǣre I. merebāt m. sea-boat, vessel, An 246. Alternative etymology cites derivation via Old English mere, miere, from Proto- Germanic *marhijō (cf. …. (planetology) A dark, large circular plain; a “sea”. ….. OHG. marah horse, meriha mare, Icel. marr horse, OCelt. marka (Pausan. 19, 19, 4) ..
mare – The Free Online Dictionary and Encyclopedia (TFODE)

::::

In the Tagal (Philippines) baba, a current, and Bicol baba, a flood, current, we have apparently the full word in this connection, the duplicated root, VA-VA.

The Sanscrit sava, water, introduces the hav or sav variety of correspondents. Japanese have sawa, a marsh; sawasawa, the sound of flowing water; sawayaka, fluent; sawate, damaged by water; sawari, the menses of women.  [also in Jp – awa= foam of waves, soap] Mota (Banks Islands) has sawa, to run on as a fluid advances; sawarasu, to run as a fluid; Formosa sabba, a river; Fijian sava-ta, to wash: sawana, the sea-side; Miriam (Torres Straits) sab, a sponge; Murray Island sab, sponge; Tonga avaava, porous, spongy. The author of Sunda (Java) Dictionary, Mr. J Rigg, considers that sawah, a wet rice field, means, etymologically, “by means of inundation.”

If the Sanscrit sava, the juice of flowers, is allied (as is accepted) to the Gothic saivs, the sea, and the Irish sabh, saliva, it may be on the root SU, but seeing also that Sanscrit sava means water and juice, it is not unreasonable (if unorthodox) to compare the Indian dialects of East Nepaul viz., Kiranti, Waling, Runchenbung, and Dungwali, in all of which the word chawa is used for water. But the root SU, from which in English come the words suck (“to imbibe, especially milk.”—Skeat) and soak; Latin succus, juice; Gaelic sug, to suck, and sugh, juice, is surely purest in its formative words, when expressed by the Polynesian and Malay forms. Consider the Tongan huhu, to suck, the breasts; huhua, milk; Maori u, the female breast; Malay susu, the breasts, milk; Brumer Islands susuga, the breast, the nipple; Efatese and Maloese susu, milk, the breast; Niuē (Savage Island) huhu, milk, the breast. If Skeat correctly places “sap,” the juice of plants, under the root SU, then the roots SU and SAV are interlocked in some way, for the Sanscrit sava, the juice of flowers, and Irish sabh, spittle, appear more likely to be related to SAV than to SU, while the Sanscrit suna, a river, may be distinctly held to be on the root SU, to distil, to express juice.

[Jp. Sute = suck; su = vinegar ]
…..
Jp. Awa = foam from “wa-ter”
It may be urged that the Sanscrit vaha, vahati, vahini, river, and vahasa, a watercourse, cannot be connected with the root for speech, but are derivatives of VAH, to carry, to bear (as in Zend vaz, and Latin veho), and that therefore many of the words I have quoted as on the root meaning mouth, or fissure, may properly be on the “carry” root. If this should prove to be the case, I may urge that there is no European word so distinctly on the root of VAH, to carry, as the Polynesian verb raha, to carry. (Tahitian, vaha; Samoan and Tongan, fafa; Hawaiian and Maori, waha, etc.) The Malay and other dialects having bawa, to carry, are acknowledged, or presumed to be borrowed Sanscrit, yet they are not so near the root sound as the Polynesians are. Nor is the Sanscrit avani, river or course of river; avishi, river; Irish abanu, river, nearer to the root AV, to go, than the Maori awa, river. If “goer” or “carrier” is the original meaning of ava, then the argument of my paper must be transposed; but these ancient roots AV and VA (as ava) have been so made one by time, that their progeny are inextricably mingled and connected. I will not here touch the vexed question of Yavana, as Greek, or as a foreigner. It needs a paper to itself.

We must not forget that Colenso (who published the A part of his Maori Dictionary), gives us valuable meanings for awa, besides those of river or ditch. He says that awa means the dry abandoned bed of an old river; a long hollow in a plain; a dug trench; a raised plot or bed in a garden. Awaawa means a rivulet; brook; a narrow valley; the trough of the sea between waves; furrows in a field of ploughed land; a long groove cut or carved in anything. It is evident that these Maori meanings of watercourses, furrows, garden-beds, etc., show that properly awa, a river, was not a “wild” river, but water tamed and harnessed. So also in compounds of waha, mouth; while waiwaha means a furrow, tawaha means a garden-bed. In Mota, where vava means to speak, vasa (Polynesian vaha or waha) appears in vasa

It may be urged that the Sanscrit vaha, vahati, vahini, river, and vahasa, a watercourse, cannot be connected with the root for speech, but are derivatives of VAH, to carry, to bear (as in Zend vaz, and Latin veho), and that therefore many of the words I have quoted as on the root meaning mouth, or fissure, may properly be on the “carry” root. If this should prove to be the case, I may urge that there is no European word so distinctly on the root of VAH, to carry, as the Polynesian verb raha, to carry. (Tahitian, vaha; Samoan and Tongan, fafa; Hawaiian and Maori, waha, etc.) The Malay and other dialects having bawa, to carry, are acknowledged, or presumed to be borrowed Sanscrit, yet they are not so near the root sound as the Polynesians are. Nor is the Sanscrit avani, river or course of river; avishi, river; Irish abanu, river, nearer to the root AV, to go, than the Maori awa, river. If “goer” or “carrier” is the original meaning of ava, then the argument of my paper must be transposed; but these ancient roots AV and VA (as ava) have been so made one by time, that their progeny are inextricably mingled and connected. I will not here touch the vexed question of Yavana, as Greek, or as a foreigner. It needs a paper to itself.

We must not forget that Colenso (who published the A part of his Maori Dictionary), gives us valuable meanings for awa, besides those of river or ditch. He says that awa means the dry abandoned bed of an old river; a long hollow in a plain; a dug trench; a raised plot or bed in a garden. Awaawa means a rivulet; brook; a narrow valley; the trough of the sea between waves; furrows in a field of ploughed land; a long groove cut or carved in anything. It is evident that these Maori meanings of watercourses, furrows, garden-beds, etc., show that properly awa, a river, was not a “wild” river, but water tamed and harnessed. So also in compounds of waha, mouth; while waiwaha means a furrow, tawaha means a garden-bed. In Mota, where vava means to speak, vasa (Polynesian vaha or waha) appears in vasa

Source: Journal of the Polynesian Society:  Polynesian Origins by Edward Tregear

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