Pre-Modern Russia and Its World: Essays in Honor of Thomas S. Noonan See P. Golden’s essay on of “Khazar Origins”, pp 86-93:
“The nomadic and semi-nomadic elements that subsequently constituted the subject tribes of the Khazar union derived from a successsion of Turkic tribal groupings and confederations that came to the Volga-Caspian-Pontic steppe, the future Khazar core, beginning at least inthe 4th c. CE. These migrations were the result of movements out of the earliest Turkic homeland in Mongolia and Southern Siberia that were associated with the fall of the Hunnic/Hsiungnu state (mid-2nd century BCE to mid-2nd century CE) and successive nomadic polities in Inner Asia.” see footnote 39 p. 86
note: Sin=Sir Middle Iranian address (close to “san” equivalent of Japanese language)
For much more, read the Khazar Sacral Kingship by Peter Golden
From the Wikipedia article “Indo-Scythian“:
According to Ethnographers and historians like Cunningham, Todd, Ibbetson, Elliot, Ephilstone, Dahiya, Dhillon, Banerjea, etc., the agrarian and artisan communities (e.g. Jats, Gujars, Ahirs, Rajputs, Lohars, Tarkhans etc.) of the entire west are derived from the war-like Scythians; who settled north-western and western South Asia in successive waves between 500 BC to 500 AD.
Trevaskis put the date of Scythian migrations into India approximately from 600 BC to 600 AD. Trevaskis wrote, “Their (Scythians’) successive onslaughts proved the ruin of Assyria, and soon after the fall of Nineveh, B.C. 606, a vast horde of them burst into Punjab.”
Many DNA Scientists have expressed the view that the presently known as Jat people were originally Indo-Scythians. However, without proper study conducted by taking DNA tests they have not succeeded in conclusively proving this point so far. DNA Scientists have done a DNA study and tests and have proved Jats are Indo-Scythian in origin and lineage.
Herodotus reveals that the Scythians as far back as the 5th century BC had political control over Central Asia and the northern subcontinent up to the river Ganges. Later Indo-Scythic clans and dynasties (e.g. Mauryas, Rajputs) extended their control to other tracts of the northern subcontinent. The largest Saka imperial dynasties of Sakasthan include the Satraps (204 BC to 78 AD), Kushanas (50 AD – 380), Virkas (420 AD – 640) while others like the Mauryas (324 – 232 BC) and Dharan–Guptas (320 AD – 515) expanded their empires towards the east.
“The Jats are the descendants of Scythians, whose kingdom’s capital was Scythia, in the present Ukraine (Ukrainian), Soviet Social Republic, is the constituent Republic of the European USSR (Population 49,757,000) in 1947. Now Ukraine’s capital is Kiev, the third leading city in Russia. Before the invasion of the golden herd, 13th century B.C. Scythian, ancient kingdom of indeterminate boundaries, centered in the area north of the Black Sea.“ — B. S. Nijjar
Q: The Jats and other Scythians of NW India’s Sacasthan are widely believed to have originated from Central Asia, and from the area of the Ukraine, who then were these Sacae-Scythians?
A recent study of the people of Indian Punjab (see Indo-Scythians), where about 40% or more of the population are Jat people, strongly shows that the Jat people are Indo-Scythians. The study involved a genealogical DNA test which examined single nucleotide polymorphisms (mutations in a single DNA “letter”) on the Y chromosome (which occurs only in males). Jats share many common haplotypes with Ukrainian people, Germanic people, Slavic people, Baltic peoples, Iranian people, and Central Asian groups. This strongly indicates they originate from near or in Ukraine. It found Jat people share only two haplotypes, one of which is also shared with the population of present-day Turkish people, and have few matches with neighbouring Pakistani populations. This haplotype shared between the two Jat groups may be part of an Indo-Aryan (or Indo-European people) genetic contribution to these populations, where as the haplotypes shared with other Eurasian populations is due to the strong DNA contributions of Indo-European Scythians(Saka, Massagetae) and White Huns.
Identification of the Jats as Massagetaeans
One theory is that they were the Khazarians:
Origin of the Khazarian and Ashkenazim Jews – the Genetic evidence
New genetic research confirms KOESTLER’S ”KHAZAR” THEORY
by Rev. Ted Pike, http://truthtellers.org/
Until the early 1980s, like millions of Christians, I believed the racial purity of the Jewish people confirmed Scripture. I saw it as vindicating Biblical prophecy that the Jewish people would not cease to exist. I was forced to reconsider by the compelling evidence of Arthur Koestler’s book The Thirteenth Tribe. Koestler’s thesis has been highly contested, but today new evidence is emerging to support it.
Koestler said that in about the 8th century AD the Khazars, a nation living in Central Eurasia, converted to Judaism. They migrated to Poland and created the eastern European or “Ashkenazim” branch of Jewry. This would have been the largest influx of Gentile converts of all time. Koestler concluded that most Zionist Jews today, being Ashkenazim, have no genetic inheritance from Abraham; they are proselytes who seized land in Palestine that never belonged to their true ancestors.
For more than a decade most genetic researchers have rejected Koestler. They said the Ashkenazim (9 million in 1900) were not descendants of Gentile converts but came primarily from a small (50,000) 15th century population of Jews in Germany. Evangelicals and Jews also rejected Koestler’s thesis, because it diminishes the racial purity central to land claims of Zionists. In their support, genetic testing over the past decade revealed that modern Ashkenazim are highly genetically related to modern Sephardim (authentic Jews). It became clear that most Jews, both Sephardic and Ashkenazim, can claim blood from the Middle East. It was also found that nearly half of Ashkenazim claiming to be descendants of the “Kohanim” (Old Testament Levitical priests) possessed “Y” chromosomes that indeed originate in Israelite roots.
New Research Returns to Koestler
But in 2012, a major genetic study of Ashkenazim was led by Johns Hopkins geneticist Eran Israeli-Elhaik. It concentrates on the compelling genetic evidence that eastern European Jewry’s roots are not just in the Mid-East but, perhaps even more so, in the Caucasus, the mountainous heartland of ancient Khazaria. (See “The Missing Link of Jewish European Ancestry: Contrasting the Rhineland and the Khazarian Hypotheses“)
Elhaik says that because of dissatisfaction with current theory he and others are forced to look again at the possibility that the Mid-East and Semitic genes present in eastern European Jewry may primarily have come from the east. His team is compelled to research this possibility because genetic testing of Ashkenazim continues to reveal a high percentage of genes particular only to the relatively isolated, mountainous region of the Caucasus. Having completed a thorough genetic study of Ashkenazim worldwide, he is launching an even more extensive analysis in his “Khazar DNA Project,” specializing in testing Jews from the region of Khazaria itself.
Elhaik and others pose fresh ideas that could unravel the question of just how Ashkenazim could come to inherit such a high percentage of Jewish genes, as well as how eastern European Jewry attained such staggeringly high numbers from such a small Jewish population in Germany only 500 years earlier.
Here are some of Dr. Elhaik’s conclusions as a result of his first genetic study of Ashkenazim:
Early German historians bridged the historical gap simply by linking modern Jews directly to the ancient Judeans (Figure 1); a paradigm that was quickly embedded in medical science and crystallized as a narrative. Many have challenged this narrative (Koestler 1976; Straten 2007), mainly by showing that a sole Judean ancestry cannot account for the vast population of Eastern European Jews in the beginning of the 20th century without the major contribution of Judaized Khazars and by demonstrating that it is in conflict with anthropological, historical, and genetic evidence (Dinur 1961; Patai and Patai 1975; Baron 1993).
…the question of European Jewish ancestry remained debated mainly between the supporters of the Rhineland and Khazarian Hypotheses. The recent availability of genomic data of Caucasus populations (Behar et al. 2010) allowed testing the Khazarian Hypothesis for the first time and prompted us to contrast the Rhineland and Khazarian Hypotheses. To evaluate the two hypotheses, we carried out a series of comparative analyses between European Jews and surrogate Khazarian and Judean populations posing the same question each time: are Eastern and Central European Jews genetically closer to Caucasus or Middle Eastern populations?
Our PC, biogeographical estimation, admixture, IBD, ASD, and uniparental analyses were consistent in depicting a Caucasus ancestry for European Jews. Our first analyses revealed tight genetic relationship of European Jews and Caucasus populations and pinpointed the biogeographical origin of European Jews to the south of Khazaria (Figures 3,4). Our later analyses yielded a complex multi-ethnical ancestry with a slightly dominant Near Eastern-Caucasus ancestry, large Southern European and Middle Eastern ancestries, and a minor Eastern European contribution…
We show that the Khazarian Hypothesis offers a comprehensive explanation to the results…By contrast, the Rhineland Hypothesis could not explain the large Caucasus component in European Jews, which is rare in Non-Caucasus populations (Figure 5) and the large IBD regions shared between European Jews and Caucasus populations attesting to their common origins. A major difficulty with the Rhineland Hypothesis, in addition to the lack of historical and anthropological evidence to the multi-migration waves from Palestine to Europe (Straten 2003; Sand 2009), is to explain the vast population expansion of Eastern European Jews from 50 thousand (15th century) to 8 million (20th century). This growth could not possibly be the product of natural population expansion (Koestler 1976; Straten 2007), particularly one subjected to severe economic restrictions, slavery, assimilation, the Black Death and other plagues, forced and voluntary conversions, persecutions, kidnappings, rapes, exiles, wars, massacres, and pogroms (Koestler 1976; Sand 2009). Such an unnatural growth rate (1.7-2% annually) over half a millennia, affecting only Jews residing in Eastern Europe is commonly explained by a miracle (Atzmon et al. 2010). Unfortunately, this divine intervention explanation poses a new kind of problem – it is not science. Our findings reject the Rhineland Hypothesis and uphold the thesis that Eastern European Jews are Judeo-Khazars in origin. Further studies are necessary to confirm the magnitude of the Khazars demographic contribution to the demographic presence of Jews in Europe (Polak 1951; Dinur 1961; Koestler 1976; Baron 1993; Brook 2006).
Kathryn Von Reyerson,Theofanis George Stavrou,James Donald Tracy
“Mr. Benjamin Freedman, a Jewish industrialist born in New York, wrote in the Economic Council Letter published there of October 15 1947: “These Eastern European Jews have neither a racial nor a historic connection with Palestine. Their ancestors were not inhabitants of the Promised Land. They are the direct descendants of the people of the Khazar Kingdom. The Khazars were a non-Semitic, Turko-Mongolian tribe.” Mr. Freedman was challenged, unwisely, by a Zionist objector; he invited his challenger to go with him to the Jewish room of the New York Public Library. There they could together examine the Jewish Encyclopedia volume I pp. 1-12, and the published works of Graetz, Dubnow, Friedlander, Raisin and many other noted Jewish historians, which, as well as other non-Jewish authorities, “establish the fact beyond all possible doubt”.’
~ Somewhere South of Suez (1950) pp349-350.”
On Xinjiang’s Tarim mummies‘ peoples of the West (factsanddetails.com)
Iranian Turkmen have 42.6% of haplogroup Q-M25 which is a common Siberian Mongoloid marker and is found at 1.8% of Turkish people. — forum commentary