Sirius the most important star – worshiped at Karahundj Armenia’s Stone Circle

Stone symbol carvings discovered on a megalithic stone circle in Metsamor, Armenia:

ancient symbol carvingsancient symbol carvings

Source: Images and text from “Karahundj Armenia’s Stonehenge” excerpted below

“It should be no surprise to anyone who knows something of Armenia’s history that astronomy is such an important part of the national character. Sun symbols, signs of the zodiac, and ancient calendars predominated in the region while the rest of the world was just coming alive, culturally speaking. Egypt and China were still untamed wilderness areas when the first cosmic symbols began appearing on the side of the Geghama Mountain Range around 7000 BC.

At Metsamor (ca 5000 BC), one of the oldest observatories in the world can be found. It sits on the southern edge of the excavated city, a promontory of red volcanic rocks that juts out like the mast of a great ship into the heavens. Between 2800 and 2500 BCE at least three observatory platforms were carved from the rocks.

The Metsamor observatory is an open book of ancient astronomy and sacred geometry. For the average visitor the carvings are indecipherable messages. With Elma Parsamian, the first to unlock the secrets of the Metsamor observatory as a guide, the world of the first astronomers comes alive.

Prehistoric Stonehenge at Karahundj

“The Metsamorians were a trade culture,” Parsamian explains. “For trade, you have to have astronomy, to know how to navigate.”

The numerous inscriptions found at Metsamor puzzled excavators, as indecipherable as they were elaborate. Hundreds of small circular bowls were carved on the rock surfaces, connected by thin troughs or indented lines. But one stood out. It is an odd shaped design that was a mystery to the excavators of the site, until Professor Parsamian discovered it was a key component to the large observatory complex.

By taking a modern compass and placing it on the carving, Parsamian found that it pointed due North, South and East. It was one of the first compasses used in Ancient times. Another carving on the platforms shows four stars inside a trapezium.

The imaginary end point of a line dissecting the trapezium matches the location of star which gave rise to Egyptian, Babylonian and ancient Armenian religious worship. Sketch the locations of the Jupiter moons over several nights and you’re repeating an experiment Galileo did in 1610.

Chart a star over several years and you repeat an experiment the Metsamorians did almost 5000 years ago. By using the trapezium carving and a 5000 year stellar calendar, Parsamian discovered that the primary star which matched the coordinates of its end point was the star Sirius, the brightest star in our galaxy.

Worship of Sirius “Sirius is most probably the star worshipped by the ancient inhabitants of Metsamor,” Parsamian explains. “Between 2800-2600 BCE Sirius could have been observed from Metsamor in the rising rays of the sun. It is possible that, like the ancient Egyptians, the inhabitants of Metsamor related the first appearance of Sirius with the opening of the year.”…

The Metsamorians also left behind a calendar divided into twelve months, and made allowances for the leap year. Like the Egyptian calendar which had 365 days, every four years the Metsamorians had to shift Sirius’ rising from one day of the month to the next. “There is so much I found in 1966,” Parsamian adds, “and so much we do not know. We believe they worshipped the star Sirius, but how? I like to imagine there was a procession of people holding lights.

These carved holes throughout the complex may have been filled with oil and lit. Just imagine what it must have looked like with all those little fires going all over the steps of the observatory. Like a little constellation down on earth.”

Parsamian has a special regard for Metsamor, since it was she who uncovered many of the mysteries of the inscriptions on the observatory, answers which explained other finds uncovered at the excavation site.”When you walk over this ancient place, you can use your imagination to complete the picture. I love to visit Metsamor since I feel I am returning to the ancients.””


Was the Armenian worship of the Sirius, the origin of a body of astronomical knowledge that would diffuse to throughout the Middle East, Egypt-Greece and beyond?

In Egypt: Sirius was known in ancient Egypt as Sopdet (Greek: Sothis) as the “Dog Star”, reflecting its prominence in its constellation, Canis Major (Greater Dog), and is recorded in the earliest astronomical records. During the era of the Middle Kingdom, Egyptians based their calendar on the heliacal rising of Sirius – the day it becomes visible just before sunrise after moving far enough away from the glare of the Sun. It marked the annual flooding of the Nile and the summer solstice, after a 70-day absence from the skies. The hieroglyph for Sothis features a star and a triangle. Sothis was identified with the great goddess Isis, who formed a part of a triad with her husband Osiris and their son Horus, while the 70-day period symbolised the passing of Isis and Osiris through the duat (Egyptian underworld).  A similar association is depicted at the Temple of Hathor in Dendera, where the goddess Satet has drawn her arrow at Hathor (Sirius).

More than 8 million mummified dogs and jackals were reported to have been found at the Dog Catacombs  at Saqqara, the burial ground for the ancient capital Memphis.

“Our findings indicate a rather different view of the relationship between people and the animals they worshipped than that normally associated with the ancient Egyptians, since many animals were killed and mummified when only a matter of hours or days old,” Nicholson said. “These animals were not strictly ‘sacrificial.’ Rather, the dedication of an animal mummy was regarded as a pious act, with the animal acting as intermediary between the donor and the gods.”

In the Arab-African sphere  Sirius was well known to the Arabs: Ibn Kathir said in his commentary “Ibn ‘Abbas, Mujahid, Qatada and Ibn Zayd said about Ash-Shi`ra that it is the bright star, named Mirzam Al-Jawza’ (Sirius), which a group of Arabs used to worship. Sirius is mentioned in Surah, An-Najm (“The Star”), of the Qur’an, and called al-shi’raa…and in verse (An-Najm:49) “That He is the Lord of Sirius (the Mighty Star).” The Dogon people are an ethnic group in Mali, West Africa, reported to have traditional astronomical knowledge about Sirius and a third star accompanying Sirius A and B (and given treatment in Robert Temple’s 1976 book The Sirius Mystery). In the religion of the Serer people of Senegal, the Gambia and Mauritania, Sirius is called Yoonir from the Serer language (and some of the Cangin language speakers, who are all ethnically Serers). The star Sirius is one of the most important and sacred stars in Serer religious cosmology and symbolism…astronomical knowledge perhaps learned in ancient times from the Moors with whom they traded extensively. The Serer high priests and priestesses, (Saltigues, the hereditary “rain priests”) chart Yoonir in order to forcast rain fall and enable Serer farmers to start planting seeds. In Serer religious cosmology, it is the symbol of the universe Yoonir, Symbol of the Universe

In Iranian-Scythian-Indo-Aryan-Caucasus mythological sphere, especially in Persian mythology and in Zoroastrianism, the ancient religion of Persia, Sirius appears as Tishtrya and is revered as a divinity. Beside passages in the sacred texts of the Avesta, the Avestan language Tishtrya followed by the version Tir in Middle and New Persian is also depicted in the Persian epic Shahnameh of Ferdowsi (“Tir”, the star was portrayed as the arrow in later Persian culture). Due to the concept of the yazatas, powers which are “worthy of worship”, Tishtrya is a divinity of rain and fertility and an antagonist of apaosha, the demon of drought. In this struggle, Tishtrya is beautifully depicted as a white horse…which may behind the sacrifice of white horses all over the Steppes, India and East Asia.

In the Greek-Bactrian-Roman spheres: Sirius appears to have signaled ill-portent. Depicted classically as Orion’s dog, the Ancient Greeks thought that Sirius could put dogs at the risk of disease and dehydration, making them behave abnormally during the “dog days,” the hottest days of the summer. The Romans knew these days as dies caniculares, and the star Sirius was called Canicula, “little dog.” The excessive panting of dogs in hot weather was thought to place them at risk of desiccation and disease. Homer, in the Iliad, describes the approach of Achilles toward Troy in these words:

Sirius rises late in the dark, liquid sky /On summer nights, star of stars, /Orion’s Dog they call it, /brightest Of all, /but an evil portent, bringing heat /And fevers to suffering humanity

The Latin name Sīrius, originates from  from the Ancient Greek Σείριος (Seirios, “glowing” or “scorcher”), although the Greek word itself is thought to  have been imported from elsewhere, it is suggested, from associations with the Egyptian god Osiris

The East Asian sphere appears to have been influenced directly either by the Persian and/or Bactrian ideas of Sirius as the celestial dog. In Chinese astronomy the star is known as the star of the “celestial wolf” (both Chinese and Japanese: 天狼 Tiānláng; Japanese romanization: Tenrō; and found in the Mansion of Jǐng (井宿) in ancient Chinese astronomical charts which also had a large bow and arrow across the southern sky, formed by the constellations of Puppis and Canis Major, with the arrow tip pointed at the wolf Sirius.

For the Polynesians it marked winter and was an important star for navigation around the Pacific Ocean.

Genetic research has established the origins of the New World indigenous inhabitants to be in the region of the Altai, the Inner Mongolia and Northern China.   Thus it is no longer a stretch to deduce a connection in the oral and astronomical traditions … many nations among the indigenous peoples of North America also associated Sirius with canines: the Seri and Tohono O’odham of the southwest note the star as a dog that follows mountain sheep, while the Blackfoot called it “Dog-face”. The Pawnee of Nebraska had several associations; the Wolf (Skidi) tribe knew it as the “Wolf Star”, while other branches knew it as the “Coyote Star”. Further north, the Alaskan Inuit of the Bering Strait called it “Moon Dog”.

The Cherokee paired Sirius with Antares as a dog-star guardian of either end of the “Path of Souls”. This recalls the East Asia-Middle East wide practice of having dog/wolf/lion guardian statues on either side of tombs and temples. Meanwhile to the Polynesians Sirius marked winter and was an important star for navigation around the Pacific Ocean.


Astrology is an occult practice that originated in ancient Mesopotamia, Egypt, India and China.

The astrologers observed the movements of the planets and assigned them godlike features and powers. Each planet represented a god or a goddess and ruled certain areas of life. The astrologers advised the rulers/kings and interpreted the pattern of planetary movements as omens or signs for understanding the future. The practice is deeply rooted in the concept of Divination an important aspect of the Mesopotamian life. Divination was employed as a technique to communicate with gods, who according to the Mesopotamian religious thought, shaped the destinies of humans and controlled all events in the cosmos.

According to John Rogers, most of the zodiacal signs originated in Mesopotamia, spreading quickly through Egypt and the Middle East, while another set of maritime signs likely originated in the Mediterranean, in Minoan Crete.

Hellenistic Egypt systematized the omen materials of the earlier Babylonian astrologers. Many astrological techniques, such as the use of 12 houses, lots and aspects were developed at this time and spread throughout the area by the Greek writers. By the 2nd century BC, the Greek scientist Hipparchus developed the mathematical astronomy that was given its final form by Ptolemy in the 2nd century AD. Ptolemy’s work in turn influenced all astrological/astronomical works until the advent of new sciences, including the Islamic celestial concepts and astronomical studies of the Middle Ages. The time of the Persian dominion, particularly from the last quarter of the fifth century BC until the Greek conquest, was the most creative period for Babylonian mathematical astronomy. Astronomical schools existed in Uruk, Sippar, Babylon and Borsippa. The Achæmenians maintained an atmosphere favourable to the development of science. Under Darius a great Babylonian astronomer, Nabu-rimanni (Naburianus), was instructed to carry out a study of lunar eclipses and arrived at calculations more accurate than those of Ptolemy and Copernicus. His works were translated and used for many centuries by all, including the Seleucid and Parthian rulers of Persia. His picture of the Heavens was borrowed by the Greeks and eventually reached the famous Greek scientist, Democritus. The terminology employed by Naburianus includes spheres, orbits, ecliptic, inclination, celestial equator, poles, circular motion, revolutions, retrogression, moon’s highest north and south latitudes. All these terms were used extensively by the Greek astronomers, including the brilliant Eudoxus of Cnidus, precursor of Euclid. Another well-known Babylonian astronomer under the Persian rule, Kidinnu (Cidenas) of Sippar, distinguished the solar year from the lunar, discovered the precession of the equinoxes. Astrological history was important to Sassanian Imperial ideology. The stars decreed the fate of the mortals and the kings expected to receive special protection. Shahnameh is full of stories where the fate of the heroes is sealed in the astronomical charts read at the time of their birth. Ptolemy and Greek astronomy were very well known in Iran. To what extent astronomy was separated from astrology is not clear and very likely astrology would have dominated the field. The Muslim Arabs destroyed almost all of the literature of the Zoroastrian Sassanians, including their astrological works. However there are some clues as to what their astrology might have been. Most of the greatest astrologers in the Islamic era were Persians! The astrology Iranians taught is quite different from both the Hindu and the Greek traditions. It had orbs of aspect, the Great Cycles of Jupiter and Saturn, all of the elaborate systems of planetary interactions such as Frustration, Abscission of Light, Translation of Light and so forth. While Muslim-era astrology owes a large debt to Hellenistic astrology, it is also clear that in the two or three centuries between the last known Hellenistic astrologers and the first known Muslim ones, something new had come into the field. This was very likely the Persian stream of astrology.

Alternative theories suggest Armenia as originators. Rogers also suggests that the synthesis of some of the constellations (Taurus, Scorpius, Leo, Canis minor, Perseus) may have taken place in the melting pot region of Cilicia (Anatolia, Asia Minor), where the Mithraic cult originated with the pirates of the Middle East.  Several constellations are known universally by all ancient cultures, these include the Plough/Great Spirit Bear/Big Dipper, Pleiades and Orion. Stephen Oppenheimer and Robert Schoch hypothesize that the maritime Austronesians(aka Sundalanders radiating outwards to the Middle East and elsewhere), Austro-Asiatics respectively, may have been the originators or spreaders of those. Around 1000 BC the astronomical knowledge of the Babylonians was passed on to the Greeks, who identified 48 constellations. earliest references to astronomy are found in the Rig Veda, which are dated 2000 BC. Indian astronomical references of chronological significance may be found in the Vedas with notices marking the beginning of the year and that of the vernal equinox in Orion (around 4500 BC). Fire altars, with astronomical basis, have been found in the third millennium cities of India. The texts that describe their designs are conservatively dated to the first millennium BC, but their contents appear to be much older.

Hellenistic astrology is a complex tradition of horoscopic astrology that appeared in the Mediterranean region sometime around the 1st century BCE, and was practiced until approximately the 7th century CE. It is the ancestor of many of the modern traditions of astrology that still flourish around the world today.

This tradition has its roots in ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia, and it influenced many other subsequent traditions of astrology across Europe, Africa, the Middle East and India during the middle ages and through to modern times.

Hellenistic astrology is a complex tradition of horoscopic astrology that appeared in the Mediterranean region sometime around the 1st century BCE, and was practiced until approximately the 7th century CE. It is the ancestor of many of the modern traditions of astrology that still flourish around the world today.

This tradition has its roots in ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia, and it influenced many other subsequent traditions of astrology across Europe, Africa, the Middle East and India during the middle ages and through to modern times.

Sources and references:

Sirius (Wikipedia)

Egyptian “Dog Catacomb” has 8 million mummified dogs by Hellum, PearsonLloyd, Gareth Neal Donna Wilson, Woodgate etc

Karahundj, Armenia’s Stonehenge by Rick Ney

Origin of the ancient constellations II. Mediterranean traditions by John H. Rogers

Out of Eden by Stephen Oppenheimer

Voyages of the Pyramid Builders: The True Origins of the Pyramids from Lost Egypt to Ancient America, 2003 by Robert M. Schoch

Astrology and Astronomy

Timeline of Ancient Astrologers



Additional notes below:


ancient symbol carvingsThe most repetitive symbol appears to be that of Aries (solar symbol, also associated with Mars and spring represented by the glyph of the horns of a ram) while the second symbol depicted clockwise from the top left  … appears to be similar to the one found at Gobekli Tepe (below)

Modern astrological symbols: ariestaurusgeminicancerleovirgo librascorpiosagittariuscapricornaquariuspisces


30 thoughts on “Sirius the most important star – worshiped at Karahundj Armenia’s Stone Circle

  1. falif says:

    this offers great insight . I have been to Kara hunge…very beautiful

  2. lale says:

    Armenians didn’t call themselves armenian , but Hayk-Haik, and they came to that region circa 6th c BC….So that doesn’t belong to their history… and Scythians are not Iranian, Aryans or Indo-Europeans, they are proto-Turks, in Assyrians tablets the name was ashguzai,ashghuz, became skuz , which a Turkish Tribe oguz means….. but thanks for the info….

    • Who are the Ashghuz? And who are the Skythai? And who are the Ashkenazi Jews? How are they related?

      Doron M. Behar of Rambam Health Care Campus, Israel, Mait Metspalu and Bayazit Yunusbayev of Estonian Biocentre, Evolutionary Biology Group, Estonia, Yael Baran and Naama M. Kopelman of Tel-Aviv University, Israel, and several other scientists, have recently published a study suggesting there is no evidence from genome-wide data of a Khazar origin for Ashkenazi Jews.

      The Khazars were a Turkic nation whose semi-nomadic empire stretched from Southern Russia to the Caucasus mountains, and from Eastern Europe to Central Asia. There is a tradition that, in the 8th or 9th centuries, their king converted to Judaism.

      See: Study finds no evidence from genome-wide data of Khazar origin in Ashkenazi Jews

      In the late 19th century, Ernest Renan and others proposed that the Ashkenazi Jews of Europe had fled from Khazaria. This theory has been used byn antisemites to suggest that European Jews stem from a barbaric Asiatic race, and to disprove their ancestral connection to the land of Israel.

      Only a year ago, many enemies of the Zionist success story, both Jews and gentiles, rejoiced in the findinggs of a Dr. Eran Elhaik, a half-Italian, half-Iranian Israeli Jew, a molecular geneticist working for the School of Public Health at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, that “the dominant element in the genetic makeup of European Jews is Khazar. Among Central European Jews, this makes up the largest part of their genome, 38%. For East European Jews it does the same, at 30%.”

      The only thing missing for Dr. Elhik’s work to prove beyond the shadow of a doubt that Jews are actually Khazars, is the fact that there are no Khazars out there. There are only folks who live nowadays where there may have been Khazars 1200 years ago.

      So, in the absence of genetic data for the long-lost Khazars themselves, Elhaik used data from populations living there now: Georgians, Armenians and Caucasians.

      “When doing so Elhaik discovered what he calls the Khazar component of European Jewry,” concluded the news reports in January, 2013.

      In short, Elhaik says he has proven that Ashkenazi Jews came from the Caucasus, not the Middle East. And the obvious conclusion is: kindly pack your bags and move on to your real homeland.

      Naturally, one of Elhaik’s biggest supporters was Shlomo Sand, who teaches his own kind of history at Tel Aviv University, and wrote the bizarre book “The Invention of the Jewish People.” Sand said the study vindicated his long-held ideas.

      ”It’s so obvious for me,” Sand said in an interview. “Some people, historians and even scientists, turn a blind eye to the truth. Once, to say Jews were a race was anti-Semitic, now to say they’re not a race is anti-Semitic. It’s crazy how history plays with us.”

      So now, not for the first time, a new study, available here, the work of a large group of scientists, finds once again that the Khazar theory is baseless, driven, like Prof. Sand, by a burning desire to invalidate the Jewish Zionist narrative. The new study also clears, once and for all, hopefully, the popular confusion regarding the possibility of there being a unique Khazar race that woke up one morning, declared itself Jewish and moved on to settle in Germany.

      “The origin and history of the Ashkenazi Jewish population have long been of great interest, and advances in high-throughput genetic analysis have recently provided a new approach for investigating these topics,” states the study’s abstract. “We and others have argued on the basis of genome-wide data that the Ashkenazi Jewish population derives its ancestry from a combination of sources tracing to both Europe and the Middle East.

      “It has been claimed, however, through a reanalysis of some of our data, that a large part of the ancestry of the Ashkenazi population originates with the Khazars, a Turkic-speaking group that lived to the north of the Caucasus region roughly 1,000 years ago. Because the Khazar population has left no obvious modern descendants that could enable a clear test for a contribution to Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry, the Khazar hypothesis has been difficult to examine using genetics.” Source:

      • More here:
        It turns out that this is not the case. The specific clade R-M582 to which Ashkenazi Levites (and other non-Levites) belong to is absent in eastern Europeans and present in non-Jewish Near Easterners, making it more likely that Jews did not pick it up from eastern Europeans, but rather from some Near Eastern population. A look at the table of frequencies suggests to me an Iranic source, but I doubt that modern populations will ever allow a full resolution of such questions.

        Nature Communications 4, Article number: 2928 doi:10.1038/ncomms3928

        Phylogenetic applications of whole Y-chromosome sequences and the Near Eastern origin of Ashkenazi Levites

        Siiri Rootsi et al.

        Previous Y-chromosome studies have demonstrated that Ashkenazi Levites, members of a paternally inherited Jewish priestly caste, display a distinctive founder event within R1a, the most prevalent Y-chromosome haplogroup in Eastern Europe. Here we report the analysis of 16 whole R1 sequences and show that a set of 19 unique nucleotide substitutions defines the Ashkenazi R1a lineage. While our survey of one of these, M582, in 2,834 R1a samples reveals its absence in 922 Eastern Europeans, we show it is present in all sampled R1a Ashkenazi Levites, as well as in 33.8% of other R1a Ashkenazi Jewish males and 5.9% of 303 R1a Near Eastern males, where it shows considerably higher diversity. Moreover, the M582 lineage also occurs at low frequencies in non-Ashkenazi Jewish populations. In contrast to the previously suggested Eastern European origin for Ashkenazi Levites, the current data are indicative of a geographic source of the Levite founder lineage in the Near East and its likely presence among pre-Diaspora Hebrews.


        But if Ashkenazi R1a isnt from the Caucasus, with basal R* in S. Siberia, how did it find its way to tje near East?

      • This article is informative on the role of Iran for the flow and direction of migration of haplogroups J, R, G, Q and N from the Caucasus, South Asia and Anatolia (which is the term used here)

  3. The point about Armenians being a late arrival to the region is a good point, though I’m sure Rick Ney (author of the quoted excerpt from his article on Karahunj) referred to Armenia only as a geographically defined location. The genetics studies bear out your statement and … partly… but it also shows the Armenians have large genetic components of local and neighboring populations. The question is which and when did those foreign lineages arrive? The carved etchings appear related to the observatories dated at 2800 BC. (Who were the Haiyks, proto-Hayiks? According to their genealogies they are descended from Noah … Ram’s horns are symbols of sacrifice associated with the Aramaic and also with the Habiru and/ the Hebrews) The Ram’s horns could still have belonged to other peoples like proto-Persians or proto-Sarmatians, not just the Anatolians … just speculating here the question of how the ram’s horn symbols eventually become the tamgas of the Sarmatians as well as of the proto-Turks and Turkic tribes. However, since these were all astronomical-astrological signs, it is possible that they were adopted by different peoples at different times independently, OR when they were in the same interaction spheres.
    As for Scythians being proto-Turks, I will only say that historical references to Scythians (as well as Saka, etc) are so numerous and refer to the nomads in so many differing locations, contexts, interaction spheres, timelines and genetic admixtures, it is pointless here to argue over only one theory of origins (hence, my broad categorization of the Scythians)

  4. Armenians didn’t arrive from anywhere, there is no proof to that. On the contrary all genetic, archaeological, linguistic, mythological, historical, etc. evidence confirm Armenians are indigenous to Armenian highland.

    According to various genetic researches Armenians originate from Armenian Highland…

    Armenian Highland, Russian Armyanskoye Nagorye, also spelled Arm’anskoje Nagor’e, mountainous region of Transcaucasia. It lies mainly in Turkey, occupies all of Armenia, and includes southern Georgia, western Azerbaijan, and northwestern Iran

    1) University of Tartu Faculty of biology and geography Institute of molecular and cell biology Department of evolutionary biology Urmas Roostalu M Sc. Rva-Liis Loogvali Prof Dr. Richard Villems Tartu 2004 “In our study the ancestry of the Armenians was traced back to different parts of Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan and Turkey, illustrating the fact that historic Armenia was a much larger territory than that of the present Republic of Armenia”.

    2) –Banoei, Chaleshtori, Sanati, Shariati, Houshmand,Majidizadeh, Soltani & Golalipour (2007) Variation of DAT1 VNTR Alleles and Genotypes Among Old Ethnic Groups in Mesopotamia to the Oxus Region. “The Armenians are a nation and an ethnic group originating from the Caucasus and eastern Anatolia, where a large concentration of this community has remained, especially in Armenia.”

    3) (Movsesian and Kochar, 2000) “Cranial similarities between modern Armenians and the Armenians of Armenia 1600 – 700 BC indicate the continuity of the genetic connection to the ancient people ”

    4) ALU INSERTION POLYMORPHISMS IN POPULATIONS OF THE SOUTH CAUCASUS “Armenians are a separate ethnic group, which originated from Neolithic tribes of the Armenian Uplands” Litvinov S*, Kutuev I, Yunusbayev B, Khusainova R, Valiev R, Khusnutdinova E.

    5) 40% of Armenian genes dates back to Paleolithic era. Levon Yepiskoposyan
    Anthropologist and geneticist RA, Doctor of Biological Sciences, head of Human Genetics at the Institute of Molecular Biology, National Academy of Sciences of Armenia, Professor.

    6) Result of the over 300 individuals that have already been tested revealed that the Armenian branches of DNA are at the root of many branches in Europe. Armenians belong to 13 distinct genetic groups that go back tens of thousands of years, while at the same time there is no trace of invaders in their DNA in the last 4000 years, making them “homogeneous in their diversity. Armenian DNA Project at Family Tree DNA

    7) “Modern Armenians and Armenian inhabitants around that time [Neolithic era] have cranial similarities, indicating a genetic continuity with ancient populations. Spread to Indian subcontinent and Europe.” –Luigi Cavalli-Sforza (1922-), world renowned population geneticist, Princeton University. Author of many books including: Cavalli-Sforza, L. L., & P. Menozzi, A. Piazza. (1994). The History and Geography of Human Genes. Princeton University Press, Princeton. Cavalli-Sforza, L. (2000). Genes, Peoples, and Languages, tr. Mark Seielstad, North Point Press.

    8) ” A comparison of five different time (multitemporal, from different period of times) zones series with each other brings out the similarities between them. Comparison of the results suggests the genetic unity of the modern and the ancient population of Armenia. All studied series are interconnected by close morphological similarities, which in this case are of the nature of genetic continuity and did not undergo any significant external influences in the form of penetration from the outside of other alien, non native elements into the local population. Such a conclusion is consistent with those obtained from other areas of the anthropological study of the Armenians – craniology , dentistry , dermatoglyphics. ”

    Source: Anna Palikyan . Some anthropological observations to the problem of continuity of ancient and modern population of Armenia.

    9) ” Anthropological analysis of the data shows that the modern anthropological type of the Armenians came into existence before the formation of the Armenian people and the Armenian language , and since then has not undergone any significant changes ”

    Source: L.A. Barsegyan. Current status of the study of anthropology of ethnic Armenians

    Different peoples throughout different times used to refer to Armenia by different names. The Sumerians in around 2,800 BCE called Armenia – Aratta and Armenian God – Haya, while the Akkadians that succeeded them in the second half of Third Millennium BCE called Armenia – Armani or Armanum. The Hittites who rose in the Second Millennium BCE called Armenia – Hayasa and Armatana, while the Assyrians who arose in the second half of Second Millennium BCE called Armenia – Uruatri or Urartu and Armi (Ararat of the Bible).Arminiya in Old Persian and Harminuia in Elamite. Egyptians called Ermenen.

    With their disappearance from the historical arena, the different names that they used to refer to Armenia and the Armenian people disappeared with them. However, Armenia and the Armenian people, always found the strength for renewal throughout the long millennia of their epic history and continued to fight on for both preservation and progress.

    Aratta is considered the first recorded Armenian state.It is mentioned in the oldest Sumerian texts that we have found about the Epic of Gilgamesh. Although it is mentioned in the earliest inscriptions, about 4.800 years ago that does not mean Aratta did not exist before that. Quentin Atkinson and Russell Gray have proved that Armenian language already split from the Mother Tongue in the Indo-European Homeland in Armenian Highland some 8,500 years ago. When ancient Armenians built Portasar about 12,000 years ago there was already some kind of level of sophisticated organization which was surely required to accomplish such a massive undertaken for its time period.

    You can learn more about Armenian history, genetics, linguistics, archaeology, mythology, etc on this page.

  5. If you read Rick Ney’s other works about Armenia you will see he never refers to Armenia as a geographical location only, since it is not accurate. All historical inscriptions and ancient historians referred specifically to the Armenian nation of Armenia. Here is for example Darius I words:

    49. Darius the King says: While I was in Persia and Media, again a second time the Babylonians became rebellious from me. One man named Arkha, an Armenian, son of Haldita — he rose up in Babylon. A district named Dubala — from there he thus lied to the people: “I am Nebuchadrezzar the son of Nabonidus.” Thereupon the Babylonian people became rebellious from me, (and) went over to that Arkha. He seized Babylon; he became king in Babylon.

    “The name “Armenia” is connected to the Indo-European root Ar- meaning “assemble/create” which is vastly used in names of or regarding the Sun, light, or fire, found in Ararat, Aryan, Arta etc.”

    T. V. Gamkrelidze and V. V. Ivanov, The Early History of Indo-European (aka Aryan) Languages, Scientific American, March 1990; James P. Mallory, “Kuro-Araxes Culture”, Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture, Fitzroy Dearborn, 1997

    • I’d like to know what are the 13 distinct genetic groups to which Armenians belong. What Y and X chromosome haplogroups and haplotypes do Armenians belong.
      Also, it seems to me that most papers refer to Anatolia rather than Armenia, which seems to have political or nationalist significance. I am rather open to the idea that PIE or IE arose in the general area of “Armenia” or Anatolia, but I should like to see a clearer picture and explication of what are “Armenian” genotypes, how these spread and the timeline. As far as I am aware, Colin Renfrew’s recently refined Anatolian hypothesis better known, so I am more comfortable with Anatolian than Armenia.
      As for indigenous origins, surely the migrations Out of Africa are not denied, although we could say certain branches of the phylogenetic tree may have their origin in “Armenia”. How did or by what route did the first migrations from Africa (which part) get to the “Caucasus and eastern Anatolia”? I understand of course, that geopolitical boundaries change continuously throughout history, and that Armenia would have been called different names at different times, but the boundaries of an Armenian land are not yet well understood or known, as opposed to terms such as Anatolia, Mesopotamia, Egypt or the Biblical lands. Further, what is the relationship of Armenia to the Hittites, Aramaens, Syrians, Caucasians and where does it stand in relationship to the branching of the Indo-European tree? There is considerable disagreement still over the PIE homeland, even the DNA papers are rarely agreed on the origin points of so-called Indo-European genes. Can you point me to a geopolitical map of Armenia through the ages, and one showing its place in the phylogenetic tree? Renfrew has very clear explanations for his Anatolian hypothesis, by contrast. My particular interest at the moment is in identifying the genetic makeup of the Hittites, Syrians, Aramaens and of course, understanding the earliest branches of the PIE-IE tree, and how the Greek, Ossetian-Georgian-Caucasian (or contribution to Eurasian steppeland populations) Indo-Iranian and Tocharian populations branch off the tree. I would also like to ascertain if the Scythians and/or Saka are genetically IE or Eurasian or Mongol-Turk in composition. I think if we can resolve the earliest branches of the PIE tree, then perhaps we can better understand why many of the common core mythologies are so similar. However, the picture seems increasingly complicated or confusing as more genetics research comes onstream, since some previously “IE” haplogroups are now deemed to have their origins as far East as North China or on the Indian continent (YDNA R1a, R1b, N for example). Since there are both West to East IE migratory movements, and Hun East to West movements, it is also difficult to sort out who owns which core myths, or which originated in Anatolia for that matter. One great mystery for example, is that of the mythical wolf nursing the twins Romulus and Remus myth which is so “European” being the story of how Rome started, but at the same time, the same identical myth is also totally integral to Hun-Mongolic genealogical myth of origins. Again, the Sargon hero legends of stories of infant exposure, are found in all of the Mongol tribes as well.

    • The problem I have with using historical references such as Armenia, is the same problem I have with historical references to what constitutes the Aryan homelands.
      The best illustration is that of Scythians and Saka. There are many vague ideas of where or who they were, they were all over the place.
      In the end, what we get is a great deal of bloated overlapping claims in the supposed boundaries of civilizations, some of it based on ignorance or hearsay of the scribes or ancient historians. We have no choice to consult and refer to these historical descriptions, but they are not unassailable descriptions and are to be debated.

  6. Oh, that’s a lot of questions u got for me there 😀

    Armenian Highland was never called “eastern Anatolia,” “Anatolia” or South Caucasus
    before …

    The government of Sultan Abdul Hamid II substituted the name Armenia with such terms as Kurdistan or Anatolia, fallaciously. Starting from 1880 the name Armenia was forbidden to be used in official documents. The Sublime Porte thus wanted to make everyone believe that the Armenian Question did not exist: if there was no Armenia, then there was no Armenian Question.

    The process of “nationalization” of toponyms was continued by the Kemalists, who were the ideological successors of the Young Turks. It gained momentum during the Republican period. Starting from 1923 the entire territory of Western Armenia was officially renamed “Eastern Anatolia”.

    The following highlights one such example. In his “Jihan Numa” Kyatib Celebi, a famous Ottoman chronicler of the 17th century, had a special chapter, titled “About the Country Called Armenia”. When, however, this book was republished in 1957 its modern Turkish editor H. Selen changed this title into “Eastern Anatolia”.

    The fact, however, is that Armenia together with its boundaries was unequivocally mentioned in the works of Ottoman historians and chroniclers. An excerpt from the said chapter of Kyatib Celebi’s Jihan Numa illustrates clearly the falsifications of modern Turkish historians.

    in the 17th century when the Armenian Question was not as yet included into the agenda of international diplomacy, the terms Anatolia or Eastern Anatolia were never used to indicate Armenia. Furthermore, the “Islamic World Map” of the 16th century and other Ottoman maps of the 18th and 19th centuries have clearly indicated Armenia (Ermenistan) on a specific territory as well as its cities.

    Armenia and Anatolia are clearly differentiated in the map published in Istanbul in 1803-1804 (see Map 2). The Ottoman authors were using the term Armenia till the end of the 19th century. One example is Osman Nuri, the historian of the second half of the 19th century, who mentions Armenia repeatedly in his three-volume “Abdul Hamid and the Period of His Reign.”

    It is more than obvious that the Ottoman historians and chroniclers in contrast to the modern Turkish ones, knew very well Armenia’s location and did not “confuse” it with Anatolia.

    The word Anatolia means “sunrise” or “east” in Greek. This name was given to the Asia Minor peninsula approximately in the 5th or 4th centuries B.C. During the Ottoman era the term Anadolou included the north-eastern vilayets of Asia Minor with Kyotahia as its center. The numerous European, Ottoman, Armenian, Russian, Persian, Arabic and other primary sources did not confuse the term Armenia with Anatolia. This testifies, inter alia, to the fact that even after the loss of its statehood the Armenian nation still constituted a majority in its homeland, which was recognized by Ottoman occupiers as well.

    Therefore, it is very sad to witness today certain Armenian historians of the Diaspora and even diplomats and analysts in Armenia, who have started to substitute the term “Western Armenia” with that of the ersatz “Eastern Anatolia”. These people have willingly and submissively undertaken the task of enacting Abdul Hamid’s decree of 1880. Incredibly, some Diasporan historians are even using the term “Anatolia” to indicate the entire Armenian Highland.

    Even if this ersatz term of Eastern Anatolia has somehow been put into circulation in Western scientific circles under the influence of systematic Turkish lobbying and falsifications and at times also due to the lack of knowledge, it is unacceptable for us, because the substitution of Western Armenia with the term “Eastern Anatolia” would mean voluntary renunciation of our homeland, rejection of our centuries-old historical and cultural heritage, denial of the Armenian Genocide, burial into oblivion of its consequences and, last but not least, rendering support to the Turkish negationist position towards the rights of the Armenian nation to Western Armenia.

    Lusine Sahakyan, PH.D., Yerevan State University

  7. About tribes this is what Armenian DNA Project says:

    “By reaching thousands of years into the past, this project also aims to find genetic traces of both the ancient peoples whose descendants make up the current Armenian population (Armens, Colchians, Hattians, Hayasa, Hayk, Hittites, Hurrians, Kaskians, Luwians, Mitanni, Mushkis, Pala, Phrygians, Urartians, etc.) and the ancient invaders who conquered or passed through the Armenian lands (Assyrians, Gamrik-Gimirri-Cimmerians, Galatian Celts, Greeks, Parthians, Romans, Scythians, Macedonians, Medes, Persians, etc.)”

    Armens is Armani Kingdom mentioned in Akkadian inscriptions.

    “Naram-Sin recorded the Akkadian’s wars against the Armani or Armeni people in Ararat. The Armeni is a reference to Armen who was the ruler of the Armenian tribe (Armen’s followers, the Armenians [Uraštu in Akkadian language], were referred to as Armeni or Armens at the time).”

    And our self designation name is Hay (Armenian) and Hayastan ( Armenia – land of Armenians, stan is land in IE) which is mentioned as Hayasa in Hittite inscriptions.


    Hittite inscriptions deciphered in the 1920s by the Swiss scholar Emil Forrer,Hugo Winckler (German archaeologist and historian) and Bedřich Hrozný(Czech orientalist and linguist) testify to the existence of a mountain country, the HAYasa, lying around the Lake of Van/Armenian Highland.

    For the first time the word “Hay” is mentioned in Sumerian inscriptions as a God, also called Enki and in Akkadian- Ea..
    “The Sumerian Anunnaki God Enki (Akkadian Ea, Armenian Haya), with the twin streams of the Euphrates and Tigris emerging from his shoulders”.
    Gobekli Tepe: Genesis of the Gods: The Temple of the Watchers and the Discovery of Eden. By Andrew Collins

    • This is very interesting, thank you. I have been following and looking previously for the etymology and roots of the word “Hayk” Haik etc. The indigenous DNA would be Ydna haplogroup G then, and perhaps R1b1b?? However, from Armenia is not quite a cradle of civilization, more like a crucible, a melting pot of many elements from the many invaders, at least that’s what I can see from its genetic map. The Lake Van and Ararat, Aratta are I think at the centre of the “descent from the mountain or divine” myths that are at the core of a great many genealogical myths. Here, the Hittites, Hurrians, Mittani appear to have dispersed to many places elsewhere, perhaps to Iran, Pamir-Ferghana, and Eurasia. The worship of Mittanian deities reached Japan though the route by which it took is still speculation. The Leviathan myth seems to be fairly universal, but most of the world associates the myth more with Mesopotamia, the Hebrews, Sumerians and Babylonians rather than with Armenians. But I see that the Hittites, Hurrians etc, would have shared the same mythology as well, in any event there is a strong J haplogroup component in the Armenian makeup, so the similarities in mythology are not surprising. Haplogroup G is non-existent in Japan (and J and R in very insignificant traces) so that is not the common source of ideas. I think that the common body of mythology spread with the bearers of bronze and equestrian warring technologies, the smithing clans and warriors, the word tatar remains in the shrine language of the smithing goddess, very close in meaning to the Greek Tartarus. The origin of that would have been somewhere in North Asia or South Siberia, most likely in the region of the Saka-Scythians of the Altai and Lake Baikal area where Western Eurasian genepool interacted with the eastern ones. It is very intriguing though that there remain Japanese clan names like Habiru, Arata, Hata, Hayato, which are far more suggestive of a Western Asian sounding connection, sounds that are totally absent in the Han Chinese languages.

  8. Many times explanations overlook prehistory and start from much later times. R1b in Crusaders is much younger than Armenian R1b.

    Previously R1b was called:

    R1b = Italic, Celtic, Germanic/ Hittite, Armenian

    Now it is called:

    R1b: Italo/Celtic, Germanic; Hittite, Armenian, Tocharian

    Most of Armenian neighbours lack R1b. It is present in Turks since many Turks tested to be assimilated Armenians. Haplogroup R1b (Y-DNA) is the dominant paternal lineage of Western Europe. It is also a dominant haplogroup for Armenians.

    Eu18 or R1b has its maximal concentration in Ireland and Pyrenees (Basques) up to 90% population, being widespread in Western Europe and gradually rarer eastwards, reaching up to Armenia in lower rate.

    In Armenians R1b has been estimated to be 8,000 years old. The closer we get to NW Europe, the more we observe the youngest, derived forms of R1b1b2.

    A study published in August 2010 (Myres et al.) says : “The phylogenetic relationships of numerous branches within the core Y-chromosome haplogroup R-M207 support an Armenian Highland (wrong usage of West Asian in original quote) origin of haplogroup R1b, its initial differentiation there followed by a rapid spread of one of its sub-clades carrying the M269 mutation to Europe.”

    Although it is rare in South Asia, some populations show relatively high percentages for the haplogroup R1b. These include the Lambadi (Andhra Pradesh) showing 37%, Hazara 32% and Agharia (East India) at 30%.

    • Actually, basal R* is now determined to have arisen in North Asia, on account of the ancient Malta boy (S. Siberia).
      The origin of R and the different haplotypes lacks consensus as new studies come onstream. For example, R* is now considered to have its origin in North Asia on account of the Malta Siberian boy showing basal R see

      R1a and R1b occur together in Pakistan, the Punjab and in Rajasthan India. R1a is pan-India and very old, as is R2. You can see the theory and map of where R1a and R1b are likely to have arisen, along with R2:;topic=17.0;attach=9

      The Indian origin of paternal haplogroup R1a1(*) substantiates the autochthonous origin of Brahmins and the caste system., Sharma S. et al.


      Many major rival models of the origin of the Hindu caste system co-exist despite extensive studies, each with associated genetic evidences. One of the major factors that has still kept the origin of the Indian caste system obscure is the unresolved question of the origin of Y-haplogroup R1a1(*), at times associated with a male-mediated major genetic influx from Central Asia or Eurasia, which has contributed to the higher castes in India. Y-haplogroup R1a1(*) has a widespread distribution and high frequency across Eurasia, Central Asia and the Indian subcontinent, with scanty reports of its ancestral (R(*), R1(*) and R1a(*)) and derived lineages (R1a1a, R1a1b and R1a1c). To resolve these issues, we screened 621 Y-chromosomes (of Brahmins occupying the upper-most caste position and schedule castes/tribals occupying the lower-most positions) with 55 Y-chromosomal binary markers and seven Y-microsatellite markers and compiled an extensive dataset of 2809 Y-chromosomes (681 Brahmins, and 2128 tribals and schedule castes) for conclusions. A peculiar observation of the highest frequency (up to 72.22%) of Y-haplogroup R1a1(*) in Brahmins hinted at its presence as a founder lineage for this caste group. Further, observation of R1a1(*) in different tribal population groups, existence of Y-haplogroup R1a(*) in ancestors and extended phylogenetic analyses of the pooled dataset of 530 Indians, 224 Pakistanis and 276 Central Asians and Eurasians bearing the R1a1(*) haplogroup supported the autochthonous origin of R1a1 lineage in India and a tribal link to Indian Brahmins. However, it is important to discover novel Y-chromosomal binary marker(s) for a higher resolution of R1a1(*) and confirm the present conclusions.


  9. The same goes for some other haplogroups…

    Genetics. J-M172 = J2, Armenian second dominant haplogroup.

    “J-M172 originates between the Caucasus Mountains, Mesopotamia and the region just north of Arabia known as the Levant”.

    “J2 has been traced back to the area between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea that comprises territory in northwestern Iraq and Iran, eastern Turkey, Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia”.

    So many new words for description of ancient Armenia.

    Armenia-Ararat (Urartu in Assyrian inscriptions). William Hughes. G. Philip & son. 1871.

  10. “Haplogroup G, together with J2 clades, has been associated with the spread of agriculture, especially in the European context and originate in AH (Armenian Hihgland)

  11. Bible has changed the meaning of original “Ararat” word and turned it into a myth. But Armenian manuscripts show us that ancient province of Armenia was called “Ayrarat” and not a mountain. Mountain was called by Armenians “Masis.” If you remember Sumerians tells us about their sacred mount called “Mashu”…Only later on Mt got the name of Ayrata/Ararat province. Ancient Assyrians referred to the province Ayrarat as Urartu. And Ayrarat/Ararat is Armenian indeed means “Place of creation” which was later used for descent story in Bible…

    Here what Iranice tells about it…

    • By the way, there is a lake in Northern Japan, Hokkaido Island called Lake Mashu (Mashu-ko) with an island in it (whether this is a coincidence or an indication of migratory origins is an open question) it is possibly the most beautiful lake in Japan and rivals Lake Baikal for clarity/purity.

  12. Bull and taurus worship and mythical symbolism is likely to be connected to cattle domestication and the rituals associated with pastoralism. Cattle DNA studies show independent domestication. For different regions. Cattle domestication of African cattle according to the latest studies occurred in the Fertile Crescent (back migrating to Africa). Indian cattle dna are related to northwestern Iran, in the region of Elam, so we may take Indian cattle and rituals to have been influenced from that direction. Chinese Asian cattle dna are entirely different from European or Near Eastern breeds, breeds and domestication deemed to have taken place in NW China. Korean and Japanese cattle DNA are a mixture of Asian and European cattle which is consistent with their ANE and southern EAS admixture population. Chinese and Japanese bull rituals are different from West Asian forms, and related to offerings to rain deities and dragons. The inclusion of the ox in the 12 animal calendar however, is a huge question, and may or may not be related to Chaldean-Babylonian-Persian astronomy. Of course, the question of antiquity and influences goes both ways now, Bulgarian scholars say they have an intermediate form of the animal calendar that suggests the Chinese calendar may have influenced Middle Eastern ones, but it is beyond my expertise to comment on this further, though it is a looming question uppermost in my mind related to the emergence of astronomy in the world. There are others who think the Balkh-Pamir-Ferghana region, ie Central Asia may have been one interaction zone that facilitated the common ideas of immortality, paradise, cosmic World Mountain between East Asians and West Asians/ Near Easterners and Caucasus- Indo-Europeans.

  13. Hi there…

    Have u seen new studies? Armenia puts an end to Out of Africa theory…

  14. I posted three times the same comment, still doesn’t show anything. If they get posted later please feel free to remove two extras, it is about domestication…

  15. It seems you blog is blocking me to post particular website called peopleofar at wordpress dot com. You can search for the post called

    Spread of agriculture

    I think when you talk about domestication you don’t realise you are actually talking exactly about historical Armenia, Armenian Highland which in various works is labelled differently which becomes confusing…Look at the map at the link, pls…

  16. David Marshall Lang (6 May 1924 – 20 March 1991), was a Professor of Caucasian Studies, School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London. He was one of the most productive British scholars who specialized in Georgian, Armenian and ancient Bulgarian history.

    Armenia: Cradle of Civilization (London: George Allen & Unwin, 1970)

  17. Among theories about the Indo-European homeland there is and Armenian hypothesis according to which ancestral home of the Indo-Europeans and Indo-European language is Armenian Highland and adjacent territories.

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